Tunnel contractors can choose whether to use cement or chemical grouts. To help them out, Britt Babcock discusses both types, which to use, when to use them and why...and an idea of how much it will all cost.
Groundwater infiltration can be due to either primary or secondary permeability. When both types of permeability are present, mitigation requires versatility and cooperation between multiple project participants.
Standard Cementitious Grouts have two main limitations: One, the inability to effectively penetrate rock microfractures or dense, silty soils, and two, poor performance due to deleterious curing problems inherent in standard concrete.
The WIPP in New Mexico was created as an R&D facility to demonstrate safe, long-term disposal of radioactive wastes. However, before waste could be shipped to the plant, fissures in the underground salt cavern had to be sealed.